Deluxe Digital Studios

From Home Video

Former names[edit]

  • Bell & Howell Video Services (1978-1979)
  • Bell & Howell/Paramount Pictures Video Services (1979-1982)
  • Bell & Howell/Columbia Pictures/Paramount Video Services (1982-1988)
    • BHCP Video (shorthand form)
  • Rank Video Services America (1988-1998)
  • Deluxe Video Services, Inc. (1998-2002)
  • Deluxe Media Services (2002-2007)

List of Customers[edit]

  • 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment (1990-2000)
  • A&M Video (tapes distributed by RCA/Columbia Pictures Home Video)
  • Academy Home Entertainment (1985)
  • Alaska Video Postcards, Inc. (1995)
  • AnimEigo (Urusei Yatsura: Beautiful Dreamer, released in association with Central Park Media)
  • Best Film and Video Corporation
  • Buena Vista Home Entertainment (1987-1990, 1998-1999)
    • ABC Video (1980, 1988-1991) (The Miracle of Lake Placid and tapes released in association with Signal Research)
    • Walt Disney Home Video (1987)
    • Touchstone Home Video (1988-1990, 1998-1999)
  • Capcom U.S.A., Inc.
  • Castle Communications PLC
  • Central Park Media
  • Classic World Productions Inc. (2001) (one known copy of The Four Tops 40th Anniversary Special: Live From The MGM Grand in Las Vegas)
  • Columbia House (1992-2005)
  • Concord Video (198?-199?)
  • Continental Video/Cinema Group Home Video/Palisades Entertainment
  • Creative Light Video (2002)
  • DiC Home Entertainment (2003-2004) (tapes distributed by Sterling Entertainment Group)
  • DK Vision
  • East Texas Distributors (mainly Paramount titles)
  • Embassy Home Entertainment (some copies of Victory at Sea)
  • Feature Films for Families (some tapes)
  • Fotomat Video
  • Geneon Entertainment (2000-2007)
  • Golden Books Family Entertainment/ClassicMedia (1985-2005)
  • Hart Sharp Video (2003-2004)
  • Independent United Distributors
  • Kit Parker Films (tapes distributed by Central Park Media)
  • Lionsgate Home Entertainment
    • Prism Entertainment (1984-1991) (including tapes distributed by Paramount Home Entertainment)
    • Artisan Entertainment (1988-2000) (plus PGA Tour Golf: Tips from the Tour, the release of which predated the duplicator's purchase of the company's duplication facilities)
      • Hallmark Home Entertainment
      • Vista Home Video
    • Vidmark Entertainment (1988-1991)
  • Mattel
  • McDonald's (1998-1999) (the first three The Wacky Adventures of Ronald McDonald releases)
  • Media Home Entertainment (some 1984 tapes)
  • MGM/UA Home Video (1982) (original release of Victor/Victoria)
  • Milton Bradley (1986)
  • National Geographic Video (tapes distributed by Columbia TriStar Home Video)
  • NC Video (1988)
  • New Yorker Video
  • Pacific Arts Video (198?-1991)
  • Paramount Home Entertainment (1979-2005)
    • CBS Video (1990-2005) (including tapes distributed by FoxVideo/20th Century Fox Home Entertainment prior to 2000)
    • Nickelodeon Video (1996-2005)
      • Nick Jr. Video (1996-2005)
    • Republic Pictures Home Video (1988-1992)
    • Simon & Schuster Video
  • Parker Brothers (1985)
  • Passage Home Communications (1989)
  • PBS Video (1980-1982)
  • Program Hunters, Inc./World Video Pictures
  • Razor & Tie (2002)
  • Royal Sound Video Productions (Cartoon Greats line)
  • Something Weird Video (some copies of Death Curse of Tartu)
  • Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (1982-2005) (for screener tapes, 1992-2004)
  • Sony Music Entertainment (1999-2005)
    • Sony Wonder (1999-2005)
      • Random House Home Video (1986-2005)
  • TV Cassette Corporation of America
  • Tyndale House Publishers
  • Universal Pictures Home Entertainment (1980-1983, 1986-present)
  • VCI Home Video (some 1981 tapes)
  • VideoVisa S.A. (1985-1995)
  • View Master Video
  • Viz Video (Pokémon tapes distributed by Pioneer)
  • Warner Home Video (some copies of Batman)
    • Allied Artists Video
    • Thorn EMI/HBO Video (1981-1986)
  • World Wide Pictures Home Video (1984)
  • Zenith Electronics (1984-1992)

How to Tell[edit]

  • Pre-August 1985 pressings would have an orange or green sticker on the supply reel.
    • Pre-September 1981 pressings would have either "Q.C. WHS" or "Q.C. WHSE" on the sticker.
    • Tapes duplicated in Mexicali from 1985 to 1987 would instead use a simpler white sticker, either on the supply reel or under the label in the center.
    • The stickers would always have numbers on them.
  • From mid-February 1986 to sometime in 1996, there was a convex sticker under the front label with a bar code, a set of 8 numbers, a six-digit code starting with M, and the tape nominal length (e.g. T-120). Such tapes have the white screen test pattern with a 1000 hz tone, usually for half a minute, followed by a black screen for 20 seconds before the tape ended. Starting in late 1986, a loud 5-second blare (commonly nicknamed "the moaning sound", and that term will be used to refer to this blare for the rest of this article) plays in the last few seconds.
    • On some tapes with the loud blare, the last two seconds of the blare are cut off.
  • Around the beginning of August 1985, an early form of the rectangular sticker was introduced. It consisted of a medium-sized bar code and a set of 11 numbers.
    • The sticker evolved over the years. Its first major change came in late 1988: a bigger barcode with an 18-digit code. Colored sides were introduced in July 1989; red was the first. Cyan came next, in early October 1991. Then came magenta in mid-April 1992, green in mid-May 1992, and yellow in mid-June 1992. Blue was the last to show up, sometime in 1996. From Q4 1995, the bar code was smaller in height. Occasionally in the early '90s, the numbers were smaller.
    • The next step in evolution, in mid-August 1991, used the same size bar code, but four sequences of numbers: a six-digit code, a single digit, another six-digit code, and a five-digit code. Only tapes before late August 1995 used the white screen test pattern. Some early tapes with this sticker had the red colored sides, while a rare EP/SLP mode tape with this sticker had the purple sides.
    • On some tapes from the 1980s to mid-1990s, there's a barcode with the numbers much harder to decipher with a sticker on top of the barcode. Tapes with this barcode mainly have the moaning sound only at the end, while some tapes with this barcode have the above mentioned white screen test pattern and full-screen static before it, such as EP/SLP mode tapes with this barcode.
    • The next incarnation was in late June 1993, and a smaller bar code was used, with the following number sequence: a six-digit code, a single digit, a three-digit code, two four-digit codes, and a two-digit code. Not a single tape that utilized this sticker had the white screen test pattern mentioned above or the moaning sound; however, some tapes with this sticker had the green colored sides.
    • The last incarnation of the sticker started in late July 1995, with a slightly smaller bar code and a more random sequence of numbers. Usually, only EP/SLP mode tapes and some carryovers from pre-1995 printings use the white screen test pattern mentioned above if you see this sticker. This sticker was not used on EP/SLP mode tapes until mid-1997. It was first used on tapes duplicated at the company's North Little Rock facilities and was the only sticker in use at all of its locations by mid-1997. An early version of this sticker appeared on some tapes from late 1994 to mid-1995.
  • Sometimes the moaning sound only lasts 3 seconds and/or has a slightly different pitch.
  • Some EP/SLP mode tapes by Random House Home Video and Family Home Entertainment did not have the white screen test pattern at all, instead having an extended black screen that played until just before the quarter-minute black screen closing with the moaning sound. However, one known copy of The Velveteen Rabbit with this credential still had the white screen test pattern before it.
  • Most EP/SLP mode tapes printed in mid-1989, such as tapes in IVE's August blockbuster promotion and September horror promotion, had the white screen test pattern in widescreen with red letterbox bars at the top and bottom; this may have also been the case with some SP mode tapes printed between 1988-1989 such as tapes released by Golden Book Video, Random House Home Video, Royal Sound Video Productions (Cartoon Greats! line only) and View-Master Video. However, other tapes, such as some copies of The Bear Who Slept Through Christmas and A Very Merry Cricket, instead had the long black screen mentioned above.
  • On some tapes from the late 80s to 90s, there are some dark red, green or white printings on the bottom middle side of the cassette. Tapes with these printings have the above mentioned white screen test pattern at the end.

Example 1:

X0102 T-100 P-2 25048


Example 2:

44041 T-100 P-2 13112


    • Tapes duplicated in Mexicali would use a different set of white printings.


T-087 118G601 296 0776


    • On tapes printed in Newbury Park, different white printings appear on the bottom middle side of the tape. These do not have the above mentioned white screen test pattern at the end. The last known appearance of this printing occurred December 8, 1988.



9/15/88 P1D#0766 WO6043 T85 RVSA

  • Some 1986-1992 tapes manufactured at Tandy-Rank (a joint venture with Tandy Corporation) may have an ink manufacture date on the left-hand of the bottom middle side, with the tape nominal length above the date.
  • Some 1986-1995 tapes have the white screen test pattern with the 1000 hz tone at the end; this is usually only the case with tapes that have printings on the bottom side.
  • Most 1981-2005 tapes have a year-week code.
    • The first number is the last number of the year the tape was printed. The last two numbers indicate the week (usually 01 through 52).
      • E.G. if the code reads "PAR228", "PAR 228", "RVS 228" or "DLX 228", then depending on the age of the tape, it could mean the tape was printed on the 28th week of 1982, 1992 or 2002.
        • Sometimes in 1989, the code was printed backwards, in which the week is the first two numbers and the year is the third and last number. If the code read "WHV 439" (as taken from one known copy of Batman), it could mean the 43rd week of 1989.
        • On some tapes printed during the 1st week of a certain year, the code may be misprinted as the 53rd week of the previous year. For example, a tape printed during the 1st week of 1994 may have the code misprinted as "PAR 353" (this example taken from one known copy of Charlotte's Web), rather than "PAR 401" (this example taken from another known copy of Charlotte's Web).
    • Pre-1985 prints have the code engraved on the back of the tape.
      • Pre-1983 prints have the company abbreviation letters engraved next to the code in blue.
      • 1983-1985 prints have the company abbreviation letters engraved on the top of the code.
    • Post-1985 prints have the code engraved on the tape guard.
    • Several 2003-2005 tapes, particularly those distributed by Paramount Home Entertainment, have the code engraved on the right side of the tape.
    • On post-1989 tapes, if the company abbreviation letters from the year-week code on the tape did not indicate the distributor, they would always be RVS (1989-1998) or DLX (1998-2006).
  • Some copies of tapes duplicated between the 1990s and 2005 have a blue or white Film Reel watermark on the plastic wrap, in place of the label/distributor watermark logo. The logo is usually on the back of the packaging, although some tapes may have it on one of the spines of the packaging. A few DVDs also had this credential.
  • Tapes duplicated in Mexicali from 1987-1995 would have a visible blend sticker plastered over the back of the packaging that says "Made in Mexico." After 1995, the notation would be printed underneath the label on some sticker-label tapes.
  • Tapes duplicated from 1982 to early 1986 would have a code on the left of the vertical blanking interval that begins with "B+H." From mid-1986 to very early 1987, this was moved to the right of the VBI.
  • Tapes duplicated in 1987 or later would have a code on the right of the vertical blanking interval that begins with either "BHCP" (1987-early 1996), "RVSA" (late 1995-1998) or "DELUXE" (post-1998) and ends with a one or two digit number. Central Video, a spinoff of RVSA, as well as a different duplication company, also used the "BHCP" code until 1999.
  • EP/SLP mode tapes duplicated at Deluxe (formerly Rank) from mid-1997 to 2001 (as well as SP mode tapes from the time with the white screen test pattern) have a code on the vertical-blanking interval during the first few seconds of the black screen at the beginning, consisting of the first three, four, five or six digits from the barcode on the tape (without the extra zeros in front of them) and five other digits. After those few seconds, the vertical blanking interval would change to either "RVSA" or "DELUXE" (see above). These tapes had the white screen test pattern only at the end.
  • It is not yet known for certain how to differentiate tapes duplicated at Northbrook, Garden Grove, El Segundo, and North Little Rock.

Fun Facts[edit]

  • Paramount Pictures acquired the first 30% of Bell & Howell's duplication arm in 1979.
  • Bell & Howell sold the other 30% of its duplication arm to Columbia Pictures in 1982. Shortly after, the arm was merged with Columbia Pictures' duplication arm, forming Bell & Howell/Columbia Pictures/Paramount Video Services.
  • All three companies mentioned above sold the arm's El Segundo operations to Andrew McIntyre Enterprises (which was eventually merged with All Post) in March 1988 and their shares in the arm itself to Rank Organisation in the summer of 1988. Shortly after, the arm was renamed from Bell & Howell/Columbia Pictures/Paramount Video Services to Rank Video Services America.
  • In March 1990, Rank Organization bought out Deluxe Laboratories from 20th Century Fox Film Corporation.
  • A promotional tape for Street Fighter II Turbo was the only RVSA-duplicated tape to use the Global Zero cassette shell.
  • Unlike the CBS/Fox Company and VCA/Technicolor, which did its film-to-tape transfers in-house, BHCP traditionally outsourced film-to-tape transfers to post houses such as Modern Videofilm.

Known abbreviation letter codes[edit]

  • CHC - Columbia House Video Club (1992-1999)
  • CTV - Columbia TriStar Home Video (1992-1998)
  • DLX (1998-2005)*
  • MCA - MCA Home Video/MCA/Universal Home Video (1981-1997)
  • PAR - Paramount Home Video (1981-1999; except Spanish-language tapes distributed by East Texas Distributors)
  • RCA - RCA/Columbia Pictures Home Video/Columbia TriStar Home Video (1988-1992)
  • RCP - RCA/Columbia Pictures Home Video (1982-1988)
  • RVS - CBS/Fox Video/FoxVideo/20th Century Fox Home Entertainment (1990-1998), Central Park Media (only on Software Sculptors titles; 199?-199?), Artisan Entertainment (1989-1998), East Texas Distributors (19??-19??), Paramount Home Video (some tapes; 199?-199?)
  • TEV - Thorn EMI/HBO Video (1981-1986)
  • UHV - Universal Studios Home Video (1997-1998)
  • VV - VideoVisa (1985-1994)
  • WHV - Warner Home Video (1989)

NOTE: *This abbreviation letter code was not officially used by Paramount Home Video/Paramount Home Entertainment until mid-1999.

Known digits at the end of the VBI codes[edit]

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • 8
  • 9
  • 01
  • 02
  • 03
  • 04
  • 05
  • 06
  • 07
  • 08
  • 09
  • 11
  • 12
  • 14
  • 15
  • 16
  • 21
  • 22
  • 23
  • 24
  • 25
  • 26
  • 31
  • 32
  • 33
  • 34
  • 41
  • 42
  • 43
  • 44
  • 45
  • 51
  • 52
  • 53
  • 54
  • 55
  • 56
  • 57
  • 58
  • 61
  • 62
  • 63
  • 64
  • 65
  • 66
  • 67
  • 68
  • 69
  • 70
  • 71
  • 72
  • 81
  • 82
  • 83
  • 84
  • 85
  • 86
  • 87
  • 88
  • 89
  • 90


Bell & Howell[edit]

Rank Video Services America[edit]

Deluxe Video Services[edit]

Deluxe Media Services[edit]


Bell & Howell[edit]

Rank Video Services America[edit]

Deluxe Video Services[edit]

Deluxe Media Services[edit]


  • Calexico, California (1991-1994) (co-owned with Videovisa S.A., spun off as Central Video)
  • Elk Grove Village, Illinois (1981-1982) (acquired from Columbia and ultimately consolidated into B&H's Northbrook operations)
  • Evanston, Illinois (1976-1979)
  • Garden Grove, California (1984-1998)
  • Los Angeles, California (1988) (acquired from Republic and ultimately consolidated into Rank's Garden Grove operations)
  • Mexicali, Baja California (1981-1991) (co-owned with Videovisa S.A., moved to Calexico)
  • Newbury Park, California (1988) (acquired from IVE and ultimately consolidated into Rank's Garden Grove operations)
  • North Little Rock, Arkansas (1995-2009) (ultimately sold to Caterpillar, currently used for motor grader assembly)
  • Northbrook, Illinois (1979-present)
  • El Segundo, California (19??-1988) (ultimately sold to Andrew McIntyre Enterprises)
  • Southfield, Michigan (1967-1980) (acquired in Wilding merger and ultimately sold to Maritz Communications)


  • Some tapes with either the company's RVS initialism engraved on the left or right side of the tape and/or its RNK or RK initialisms in the printings on the tape spine were instead duplicated at Technicolor Video Services.
  • Some tapes with the company's DLX initialism in the printings on the left side of the tape were instead duplicated at Premiere Video.
  • Some tapes with the name "DELUXE MEDIA" on the sticker on the right side of the tape, specifically Paramount Home Entertainment and DreamWorks Home Entertainment demo tapes from 2007-2008, were instead duplicated at Crest National.
  • The first tape to roll off the assembly line at the company's North Little Rock location was Legends of the Fall.
  • The company had used EP/SLP as early as Q1 1988 when it demonstrated a test VHS pressing of Top Gun from Paramount Home Video.

See also[edit]